I am pleased to share with you this PDF of the entry I wrote entitled “Orthography” in the International Encyclopedia of Linguistic Anthropology (2021), published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. It is a great honor to be included in the pages of this comprehensive reference work. All appropriate copyrights and protections apply.

I share the PDF here with permission for personal use here, not for any paid service. The complete citation is available in the PDF I am sharing, and the Encyclopedia can be found at this link.

Read it! Share it! Let me know what you learned!


  1. Gina, your entry is mind-blowingly clear, concise, intelligent, and original while being factual. Bravo. What a gift to scholarship!

  2. Patricia Ellis says:

    Hi Gina,
    Thank you for sharing with us your fine scholarship. I learned that “spelling is designed to represent meaning,” and as you have been teaching those with ears to hear, “that phoneme-grapheme correspondences are delineated and constrained by morphemic boundaries.” I believe you would want your students to understand the importance of orthography and not look to speech as the primary way to study linguistics. You were even able to make your understandings clear to Non-linguists.

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